Spanish Militia Uniforms in May 1808

This is a list of the uniform colours of Spanish Militia and Provincial Grenadier battalions in May 1808. It is based on a scan of a primary document I found on the website of the Ciudad Real tourist board, and I have translated (imperfectly, I’m sure) the main table here. Most of the battalions are dressed (at least temporarily) in brown uniforms, which at least to me came as a surprise, since I thought that the units would have had white (or the earlier blue) uniforms still at the start of the war. The “Old” uniform is white 1790s pattern, “Middle” refers to the blue coat of the 1802 pattern, and the “New” is the white 1806 pattern. All units had red cuffs, collars, lapels and turnbacks. All of the battalions were listed as being well armed. Battalion Province Location Strength Missing State of uniform 1. Gr.Bat. 1. Div. Portugal Setubal 864 42 New 2. Gr.Bat. 1. Div. Portugal Setubal 864 81 Middle 2. Gr.Div. Portugal Lisboa 1440 10 New 2. Gr.Bat. 4. Div. Portugal Porto 720 11 Old 3. Gr.Div. Andalucia Campo de Gibraltar 1440 27 Old Jaen Andalucia Alxeciras 600 16 New, provisional, brown Lorca Andalucia Alxeciras 600 38 New, provisional, brown Siguenza Andalucia Quartel de Buenabina 600 21 New Guadix Andalucia San Roque 600 12 Could not provide info Chinchilla Andalucia Estepona 600 42 Could not provide info Malaga Andalucia Los Barrios 600 199 Could not provide info Cuenca Andalucia Tarifa 600 4 New, provisional, brown Ecixa Andalucia Cadiz 600 11 New, provisional, brown Xerez Andalucia Cadiz 600 26 Could not provide info Cordova Andalucia Cadiz 600 16 Could not provide info Toledo Andalucia Cadiz 600 21 Could not provide info Ronda Andalucia Cadiz 600 26 New, provisional, brown cloth Ciudad-Real Andalucia Puerto de Sta Maria 600 25 Do not have uniforms Truxillo Andalucia Puerto de Sta Maria 600 33 New, provisional, brown Sevilla Andalucia Xerez de la Frontera 600 53 New, provisional, brown Burgos Andalucia Xerez de la Frontera 600 23 New, provisional, brown Alcazar Andalucia San Lucar de Barram 600 5 New, provisional, brown Buxalance Andalucia San Lucar de Barram 600 6 New, provisional, brown Granada Andalucia Isla de Leon 600 47 New, provisional, brown Toro Andalucia Isla de Leon 600 47 New, provisional, brown Logrono Andalucia Isla de Leon 600 42 Could not provide info Plasencia Andalucia Isla de Leon 600 7 Could not provide info Ciudad Rodrigo Andalucia Isla de Leon 600 15... read more

Russo-Swedish scenarios

On these pages we describe the battles that we have re-created in miniature. Battle of Leppävirta, 11th of March 1808 General de Brigade scenario details – Refight battle report Preliminaries: Russian forces crossed the border to the Savo area on the 28th of February, about one week after the main forces in the south. The 5th Division of Lieutenant-General Nikolai Aleksejevits Tutskov started operations with 3.000 men with rest of the division still marching to the area of operations. Finnish force in the area was the Savo Brigade under Colonel Count Johan Cronstedt with 4.000 men. The Savo Brigade was concentrated at Mikkeli with strong detachments to the east. However, based on false intelligence, Finnish forces had already started retreating northwards in order to protect their supply lines from alleged Russian flanking maneuver. With new orders to avoid pitched battles from army commander Klingspor, Savo Brigade moved to Leppävirta south of Kuopio. In the morning of 11th of March Colonel Cronstedt received reports that the Russian force of under 2.000 men was closing in from the south. Dispositions: Finnish forces deployed on the frozen lake. Infantry supported by artillery formed a single line with small cavalry formations on the flanks. In the forests east and west of the lake were detachments of jaegers. The eastern shore has plenty of steepish cliffs which are several meters high. This makes it impassable to formed infantry and cavalry. The Battle: Russians arrived sooner than expected and started to deploy opposite the Finnish line. The “battle” turned out to be only a minor skirmish, with two forces exchanging some scattered artillery and musket fire during the afternoon and cossack attempts to threaten Finnish flanks easily repulsed by Finnish salvos. Under the cover of night Finnish forces, according to the orders, continued their withdrawal north towards Kuopio. Apparently the Russians were somewhat hesitant to advance since their right flank in the east hadn’t frozen due to strong current. It is said that because of this several battalion commanders pleaded Cronstedt to crush the Russians with a flanking maneuver from west/behind. If all the troops of the III (Savo-Karelian) brigade that were present (some weren’t deployed) had been committed to this attack, their numbers would also have been superior to the Russians. Battle of Lapua, 14th of July 1808 General de Brigade Orders of Battle – Refight battle report It was already early summer when Finnish army under Klingsporg finally started its counteroffensive to the... read more

Finnish flags

Most of the regiments used the provincial coat of arms as the emblem in their colours. In most cases each regiment had the same number of colours as it had batallions or squadrons. Jaegers had no colours. The pdf file below has a number of ready-to-print flags. In addition to some unique designs there were several different types of designs for the infantry colors. These are: Model 1686 The coat of arms encircled by a green laurel wreath Model 1766 2a The coat of arms encircled by a decorative shield shaped ornament with a royal crown on top Model 1766 2b The coat of arms encircled by a decorative shield shaped ornament with a royal crown on top The model 1766 2b has slightly thicker and almost leaf-like decorations than the previous 2a model. Guard and household regiments all have very similar colour designs using the king’s monogram on both sides with the exception of Queen’s and Queen Dowager’s life regiments that used the royal ladies own monograms on one side and either king’s monogram (queen’s) and the royal crown (queen dowager’s) on the other side. All guard and household flags were white with gold monograms. The cavalry guidons had the king’s monogram on one side and the provincial coat of arms on the other side. As no info was found for usimaa dragoons’ guidon we assume that presumably they used the old guidons of Uudenmaan ja Hämeen rakuunarykmentti ie. coat of arms of Uusimaa. The approximate sizes of the actual colors were as follows: infantry 210 x 180-190 cm, cavalry 60 x 60 cm and dragoons 120 x 100. Infantry regiments Adlercreuzka regemente unique design Hälsinge regemente 1686 Hämeen rykmentti 1766 2b Jägerhornska regemente unique design Jämtlands regemente 1686 Kajaanin pataljoona unknown type and appearance (2 colours received in1799 so 1766 2a is most likely) Kronobergs regemente probably 1766 2a Oulun pataljoona unknown if any colours were ever received (battalion was formed during the war) Porin rykmentti 1686 (one of the 4 colours was replaced in 1792 probably with 1766 2a) Pohjanmaan rykmentti 1686 Savon rykmentti unique design Turun rykmentti 1766 2b (with open crown in each canton) Uudenmaan rykmentti 1766 2b Upplands regemente probably 1766 2a Vaasa battalion unknown if any colours were ever received (battalion was formed during the war) Västmanlands regemente 1766 2b Västerbotten regemente 1686 Guards and household regiments Finska gardet monogram of King Gustaf IV Adolf Lifsgardet monogram of King Gustaf IV Adolf... read more

Historical maps

When the idea of Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809 project was first talked about the decision was to aim for as historically accurate terrain as possible. The 21 volume book Sveriges Krig Åren 1808 och 1809 had 19th/20th century maps for the battles. Lakes, rivers, forests, houses and so on have been clearly and well marked on the maps. In addition they give rough position of hills. The rough positions would have been about perfect for your traditional “styrofoam hills on a green gaming cloth”-gaming table, but we wanted to get more correct topographical feel to them if possible. Modern topographical maps proved to be the solution. National Land Survey of Finland has whole Finland on the net at Citizen’s MapSite. Modern maps and the maps from the book were usually very good matches. Distances were about the same between distinct terrain features, relative positions were close etc. Combining the modern contour lines with old maps required quite a bit tedious work, tough. After experimenting with various ways of selection the lines in PhotoShop, conclusion that it was the most efficient to drawn out the line by hand was reached. Some attention was needed to see where modern day landscaping had taken place. For example one battlefield apparently had a ridge dug out for sand. So some “artistic talent” was needed. This was particularly true with 2.5 meter contour lines that were between the main lines (which are at 5 meter intervals) as they weren’t fully present. End result was a file just showed the contour lines at 2.5 meter intervals that could be combined with maps from the book. Low resolution sample: Just the modern contours lines were printed out on normal colour printer and the printouts were taped together to make one big 270x150cm map. This map was used a build up terrain. The combined map (old map with contour lines) enabled us to model lakes, rivers, forest, houses and other features on the terrain in the right... read more